The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part of the internal waters of the Philippines. The person having the highest number of votes shall be proclaimed elected, but in case two or more shall have an equal and highest number of votes, one of them shall forthwith be chosen by the vote of a majority of all the Members of both Houses of the Congress, voting separately. (5) The right to self-organization shall not be denied to government employees. (2) Appointments in the civil service shall be made only according to merit and fitness to be determined, as far as practicable, and, except to positions which are policy-determining, primarily confidential, or highly technical, by competitive examination. The State shall regulate the relations between workers and employers, recognizing the right of labor to its just share in the fruits of production and the right of enterprises to reasonable returns on investments, and to expansion and growth. Article II Section 8 of the Philippine Constitution is the cornerstone of Philippine policy with regard to the presence of nuclear weapons within its territory. The Philippines is a republican state. The convening of the Congress cannot be suspended nor the special election postponed. SECTION 4. The first local elections shall be held on a date to be determined by the President, which may be simultaneous with the election of the Members of the Congress. The provisions of paragraphs (3) and (4), Section 15 of Article VIII of this Constitution shall apply to cases or matters filed before the ratification of this Constitution, when the applicable period lapses after such ratification. SECTION 1. A similar plan shall be adopted for all special courts and quasi-judicial bodies. The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. The Committee, after hearing, and by a majority vote of all its Members, shall submit its report to the House within sixty session days from such referral, together with the corresponding resolution. Article 2 of the Philippine Constitution . SECTION 14. The territorial and political subdivisions of the Republic of the Philippines are the provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays. Taking into account the requirements of conservation, ecology, and development, and subject to the requirements of agrarian reform, the Congress shall determine, by law, the size of lands of the public domain which may be acquired, developed, held, or leased and the conditions therefor. Agricultural lands of the public domain may be further classified by law according to the uses which they may be devoted. SECTION 16. Unless otherwise fixed by the Commission in special cases, the election period shall commence ninety days before the day of the election and shall end thirty days after. Philippine Constitution Article II. However, a majority thereof, including the Chairman, shall be Members of the Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years. (1) The State shall promote physical education and encourage sports programs, league competitions, and amateur sports, including training for international competitions, to foster self-discipline, teamwork, and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry. Match. The incumbent Members of the Judiciary shall continue in office until they reach the age of seventy years or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office or are removed for cause. SECTION 4. The Judiciary shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. This provision also applies to career officers whose resignation, tendered in line with the existing policy, had been accepted. In such agreements, the State shall promote the development and use of local scientific and technical resources. (2) The Congress may, by law, authorize the President to fix within specified limits, and subject to such limitations and restrictions as it may impose, tariff rates, import and export quotas, tonnage and wharfage dues, and other duties or imposts within the framework of the national development program of the Government. Article X, Local Government [1987 Philippine Constitution] About Us. No combinations in restraint of trade or unfair competition shall be allowed. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances. All public officers and employees shall take an oath or affirmation to uphold and defend this Constitution. (Article XIV, Section 2) Section 13. The Congress may provide for other cases of violations of human rights that should fall within the authority of the Commission, taking into account its recommendations. The President, Vice-President, the Members of the Cabinet, and their deputies or assistants shall not, unless otherwise provided in this Constitution, hold any other office or employment during their tenure. The organic act shall define the basic structure of government for the region consisting of the executive department and legislative assembly, both of which shall be elective and representative of the constituent political units. Any Member who took no part, or dissented, or abstained from a decision or resolution must state the reason therefor. Subject to reasonable conditions prescribed by law, the State adopts and implements a policy of full public disclosure of all its transactions involving public interest. Match. 1987 Philippine Constitution. (1) There shall be a Commission on Audit composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners, who shall be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, certified public accountants with not less than ten years of auditing experience, or members of the Philippine Bar who have been engaged in the practice of law for at least ten years, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the elections immediately preceding their appointment. SECTION 19. Until a law is passed, the President may fill by appointment from a list of nominees by the respective sectors the seats reserved for sectoral representation in paragraph (2), Section 5 of Article VI of this Constitution. SECTION 15. SECTION 3. SECTION 11. (4) No officer or employee in the civil service shall engage, directly or indirectly, in any electioneering or partisan political campaign. For three consecutive terms after the ratification of this Constitution, one-half of the seats allocated to party-list representatives shall be filled, as provided by law, by selection or election from the labor, peasant, urban poor, indigenous cultural communities, women, youth, and such other sectors as may be provided by law, except the religious sector. The State may not be sued without its consent. SECTION 6. SECTION 1. SECTION 21. SECTION 12. SECTION 4. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in cases of invasion or rebellion when the public safety requires it. The Congress shall provide for the implementation of the exercise of this right. No Member shall be questioned nor be held liable in any other place for any speech or debate in the Congress or in any committee thereof. The practice of all professions in the Philippines shall be limited to Filipino citizens, save in cases prescribed by law. Neither shall he, directly or indirectly, be interested financially in any contract with, or in any franchise or special privilege granted by the Government, or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including any government-owned or controlled corporation, or its subsidiary, during his term of office. Excessive bail shall not be required. SECTION 11. The President, the Vice-President, the Members of the Supreme Court, the Members of the Constitutional Commissions, and the Ombudsman may be removed from office, on impeachment for, and conviction of, culpable violation of the Constitution, treason, bribery, graft and corruption, other high crimes, or betrayal of public trust. The Commission on Appointments shall meet only while the Congress is in session, at the call of its Chairman or a majority of all its Members, to discharge such powers and functions as are herein conferred upon it. SECTION 25. (3) Charitable institutions, churches and parsonages or convents appurtenant thereto, mosques, non-profit cemeteries, and all lands, buildings, and improvements, actually, directly, and exclusively used for religious, charitable, or educational purposes shall be exempt from taxation. The preservation of peace and order within the regions shall be the responsibility of the local police agencies which shall be organized, maintained, supervised, and utilized in accordance with applicable laws. (5) The Council shall have the principal function of recommending appointees to the Judiciary. Accordingly, it shall strengthen its solidarity and actively promote its total development. (9) Such other matters as may be authorized by law for the promotion of the general welfare of the people of the region. Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them. The Commission shall rule by a majority vote of all the Members. They shall not, during said tenure, directly or indirectly, practice any other profession, participate in any business, or be financially interested in any contract with, or in any franchise, or special privilege granted by the Government or any subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries. 1987 Constitution contained in one webpage. The President shall have the power to make appointments during the recess of the Congress, whether voluntary or compulsory, but such appointments shall be effective only until after disapproval by the Commission on Appointments or until the next adjournment of the Congress. The Ombudsman must have for ten years or more been a judge or engaged in the practice of law in the Philippines. The Members of the Supreme Court and of other courts established by law shall not be designated to any agency performing quasi-judicial or administrative functions. SECTION 5. The State may directly undertake such activities, or it may enter into co-production, joint venture, or production-sharing agreements with Filipino citizens, or corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of whose capital is owned by such citizens. SECTION 19. (1) A Judicial and Bar Council is hereby created under the supervision of the Supreme Court composed of the Chief Justice as ex officio Chairman, the Secretary of Justice, and a representative of the Congress as ex officio Members, a representative of the Integrated Bar, a professor of law, a retired Member of the Supreme Court, and a representative of the private sector. The State shall respect the role of independent people’s organizations to enable the people to pursue and protect, within the democratic framework, their legitimate and collective interests and aspirations through peaceful and lawful means. (8) Recommend to the President the removal of any officer or employee it has deputized, or the imposition of any other disciplinary action, for violation or disregard of, or disobedience to its directive, order, or decision. Democratic and republican state. (3) A vote of at least one-third of all the Members of the House shall be necessary either to affirm a favorable resolution with the Articles of Impeachment of the Committee, or override its contrary resolution. SECTION 2. The State shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach to health development which shall endeavor to make essential goods, health and other social services available to all the people at affordable cost. Funny that after more than two decades, the bicameral congress has yet to pass an anti-dynasty law. The State shall regulate the transfer and promote the adaptation of technology from all sources for the national benefit. (b) All cases involving the legality of any tax, impost, assessment, or toll, or any penalty imposed in relation thereto. Each city with a population of at least two hundred fifty thousand, or each province, shall have at least one representative. At the earliest possible time, the Government shall increase the salary scales of the other officials and employees of the National Government. Section 2. They shall also be subject to such other qualifications and disabilities as may be prescribed by law. Article XII Section 2 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution provides: "Section 2, All lands of the public domain, waters, minerals, coal, petroleum, and other mineral oils, all forces of potential energy, fisheries, forests or timber, wildlife, flora and fauna, and other natural resources are owned by the State. Each Commission en banc may promulgate its own rules concerning pleadings and practice before it or before any of its offices. Articles of the Constitution. The authority shall provide policy direction in the areas of money, banking, and credit. There shall be priority for the needs of the underprivileged sick, elderly, disabled, women, and children. Towards this end, the State shall regulate the acquisition, ownership, use, enjoyment, and disposition of private property, and equitably diffuse property ownership and profits. SECTION 2. (1) The House of Representatives shall have the exclusive power to initiate all cases of impeachment. The answer lies in “as may be defined by law.” Specifically, there is no “enabling law” that will allow this specific provision to be implemented. Article XII of the 1987 Philippine Constitution – National Economy and Patrimony. He shall have Power, by and with the Advic… If the Congress, within ten days after receipt of the last written declaration, or, if not in session, within twelve days after it is required to assemble, determines by a two-thirds vote of both Houses, voting separately, that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice-President shall act as the President; otherwise, the President shall continue exercising the powers and duties of his office. Section 1. SECTION 13. Section 2. | G.R. Managed by EDP/IT Division of the Presidential Communications Operations Office (PCOO), Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, Presidential Communications Operations Office (PCOO), The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines. With the exception of agricultural lands, all other natural resources shall not be alienated. No pardon, amnesty, parole, or suspension of sentence for violation of election laws, rules, and regulations shall be granted by the President without the favorable recommendation of the Commission. (7) Recommend to the Congress effective measures to minimize election spending, including limitation of places where propaganda materials shall be posted, and to prevent and penalize all forms of election frauds, offenses, malpractices, and nuisance candidacies. No person may be elected President unless he is a natural-born citizen of the Philippines, a registered voter, able to read and write, at least forty years of age on the day of the election, and a resident of the Philippines for at least ten years immediately preceding such election. SECTION 7. (1) The rule of taxation shall be uniform and equitable. (1) Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have the right to be informed of his right to remain silent and to have competent and independent counsel preferably of his own choice. Principles. The State shall promote social justice in all phases of national development. (6) Discretionary funds appropriated for particular officials shall be disbursed only for public purposes to be supported by appropriate vouchers and subject to such guidelines as may be prescribed by law. The use of property bears a social function, and all economic agents shall contribute to the common good. Philippine Constitution (1987) ARTICLE II Declaration of Principles and State Policies The Office of the Ombudsman shall enjoy fiscal autonomy. (1) The right of spouses to found a family in accordance with their religious convictions and the demands of responsible parenthood; (2) The right of children to assistance, including proper care and nutrition, and special protection from all forms of neglect, abuse, cruelty, exploitation, and other conditions prejudicial to their development; (3) The right of the family to a family living wage and income; and. The Supreme Court shall have administrative supervision over all courts and the personnel thereof. SECTION 9. Dual allegiance of citizens is inimical to the national interest and shall be dealt with by law. Such supervision or regulation shall aim to ensure equal opportunity, time, and space, and the right to reply, including reasonable, equal rates therefor, for public information campaigns and forums among candidates in connection with the objective of holding free, orderly, honest, peaceful, and credible elections. SECTION 22. Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme over the military. SECTION 7. Philippine citizenship may be lost or reacquired in the manner provided by law. In the implementation of such program the State shall respect the rights of small property owners. Appropriations for the special election shall be charged against any current appropriations and shall be exempt from the requirements of paragraph 4, Section 25, Article VI of this Constitution. SECTION 10. A certification to this effect signed by the Chief Justice shall be issued and a copy thereof attached to the record of the case and served upon the parties. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be allowed. SECTION 18. SECTION 23. If at the beginning of the term of the President, the President-elect shall have died or shall have become permanently disabled, the Vice-President-elect shall become President. 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